The town of Nhulunbuy is the main population centre in the East Arnhem Land region and was established in 1971 when the bauxite mine and alumina refinery were originally constructed.
Nhulunbuy and its surrounding areas are Indigenous-owned private lands, with the township, mine, refinery and other areas covered by special leases.
While Nhulunbuy is the name of the town, and Gove is the name of the peninsula where the town is located, the two names are used interchangeably.
With a population of around 2,600, Nhulunbuy has all the facilities expected in a modern town, including three schools, a district hospital, two shopping centres, two childcare centres, restaurants and sporting facilities. It also hosts a surf club, boat club and golf club with a nine-hole course.